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科学家梅切尼科夫
时间:2015/5/22 0:37:41作者:系统管理员点击量:405

 

      Ilya Mechnikov was a Russian scientist best known for his pioneering research in immunology. He is considered to be the father of phagocytes, cellular innate immunity, probiotics, and gerontology (Microbes and Infection 18 (2016) 577-594).

       During the second half of the 19th century, it was clear that many diseases are caused by attacks of microorganisms. It was also determined that our immune system protects us against these attacks. Ilya Mechnikov contributed in several ways to our understanding of how this happens. After studies of starfish larvae, in 1882 he pointed to phagocytosis as one of the immune system’s ways of operating. By this he meant that certain cells in the blood, white blood cells, work by encapsulating and destroying harmful bacteria and other microorganisms.

      Not only did Ilya Mechnikov explore the role of phagocytosis in inflammation in a classic monograph that has stood the test of time, but he also anticipated current interest in the gut microbiome, probiotics, and research into gerontology, a term he coined (Immunity 44 (2016) 463-475). He wrote The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies, in which he espoused the potential life-lengthening properties of lactic acid bacteria. He attributed the longevity of Bulgarian peasants to their yogurt consumption. The benefits of probiotics have been recognized and explored for over a century. The pioneering work of Tissier and Moro was elaborated in the Ilya Mechnikov’s theory of longevity and converted into commercial reality by Shirota and Kellogg in 1930s and German nutritionists with their probiotic therapy in 1950s. Our knowledge about probiotics and their interactions with the host has grown ever since and many potential and even proven mechanisms of action for probiotics have recently been published. Definitely, there is enough clinical evidence to support certain health claims attributed to selected strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp (International Dairy Journal 18 (2008) 714-728).

      Ilya Mechnikov is a Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine. Prize motivation was as follows: in recognition of their work on immunity.


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